CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024

The journey through Class 12 is a critical phase for students, especially for those aiming for a career in the life sciences. The CBSE Biology syllabus for 2024 is meticulously designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of advanced biological concepts and their applications. This guide aims to offer an in-depth exploration of the CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus, along with answers to frequently asked questions, to help students excel in their studies and prepare for competitive exams.

The CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus is structured to deepen students’ understanding of various biological processes and systems. Here’s a detailed overview of the key topics covered:

  1. Reproduction:
    • Reproduction in Organisms: Modes of reproduction, asexual and sexual reproduction.
    • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants: Flower structure, development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization, seed and fruit development.
    • Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems, gametogenesis, menstrual cycle, fertilization, pregnancy, and embryonic development.
    • Reproductive Health: Birth control, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility and assisted reproductive technologies.
  2. Genetics and Evolution:
    • Principles of Inheritance and Variation: Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal theory of inheritance, deviations from Mendelian genetics.
    • Molecular Basis of Inheritance: DNA structure and replication, transcription, translation, gene expression and regulation.
    • Evolution: Origin of life, theories of evolution, evidences of evolution, adaptive radiation, and human evolution.
  3. Biology and Human Welfare:
    • Human Health and Disease: Pathogens, basic concepts of immunology, vaccination, common diseases in humans, and strategies for enhancement in food production.
    • Microbes in Human Welfare: Role of microorganisms in household products, industrial products, sewage treatment, energy generation, and as biocontrol agents.
  4. Biotechnology and Its Applications:
    • Biotechnology: Principles and Processes: Genetic engineering (recombinant DNA technology), tools of recombinant DNA technology, and processes of recombinant DNA technology.
    • Biotechnology and its Applications: Applications of biotechnology in agriculture, medicine, and ethical issues.
  5. Ecology and Environment:
    • Organisms and Populations: Organisms and environment, population and ecological adaptations, population interactions.
    • Ecosystem: Structure and function of ecosystem, energy flow, nutrient cycling, and ecological succession.
    • Biodiversity and Conservation: Biodiversity, patterns of biodiversity, importance of biodiversity, conservation of biodiversity.
    • Environmental Issues: Air pollution, water pollution, solid waste management, and climate change.


Q1. How should I approach studying biology in Class 12?

A1. Begin by understanding and memorizing basic concepts, followed by regular revision and practice of diagrams. Utilize various study resources and solve previous years’ question papers to enhance problem-solving skills and familiarity with the exam pattern.

Q2. Are there any recommended study resources for Class 12 Biology?

A2. NCERT textbooks are essential as they comprehensively cover the entire syllabus. Additional reference books such as “Trueman’s Biology” and “Pradeep’s Biology” can provide further insights and additional practice questions.

Q3. How can I excel in the practical exams?

A3. Pay close attention during practical classes, and understand the procedures, and principles behind each experiment. Maintain a well-organized practical notebook and practice drawing accurate diagrams. Regularly review your notes and perform hands-on practice whenever possible.

Q4. How can I stay updated with any changes or updates to the CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus?

A4. Regularly check reliable educational websites, the CBSE official website, and stay in touch with your school’s academic department for any updates or changes to the syllabus.


Mastering the CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus requires dedication, consistent effort, and a thorough understanding of the fundamental principles of biology. By following this comprehensive guide and utilizing recommended study resources, students can confidently navigate the syllabus and excel in their academic endeavors. Remember, success in biology lies in understanding concepts, visualizing processes, and effectively applying knowledge.